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Last updated on 28 March 2016
  1. Almond, A. G., Powell, G. B. J., Dalton, R. J., & Strom, K. (2010). Comparative politics today: A world view (9th ed.). New York, NY:Longman.
  2. Almond, G. & Verba, S. (1963). The civic culture: Political attitudes and democracy in five nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  3. BBC News (2013). Egypt in crisis. Retrieved from
  4. Chiok, P. F., Low, C. C., & Ang, S. M.(2012). Malaysian culture: Views of educated youths about our way forward. International Proceedings of Economics Development & Research, 48, 1-5.
  5. Federal Constitution. (2010). Laws of Malaysia: Federal Constitution (Reprint as at 1 November 2010). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The Commissioner of Law Revision Malaysia.
  6. Fenton, S. (2003). Malaysia and capitalist modernisation: Plural and multicultural models. International Journal on Multicultural Societies (IJMS), 5(2), 135-147.
  7. Figgis, J.N. & Laurence, R.V.(Eds.). (1907). Letter to Bishop Mandell Creighton. Historical essays and studies. Retrieved from
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  9. Government of Malaysia. (2010). Federal Constitution (Reprint) [PDF doc]. Retrieved from
  10. Heywood, A. (2007). Politics (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Palgrave. 
  11. Human Rights Watch. (2012). World report 2012: Malaysia. Retrieved from http://
  12. Lee Kiyau Loo. (2012). Public policy and decision making. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Open University Malaysia.
  13. Marx, K. & Engels, F. (2005). The communist manifesto. Retrieved from
  14. Mohamed Mustafa Ishak. (2002). Managing ethnicity and constructing the “Bangsa Malaysia” (A united Malaysian nation). Malaysian Management Journal, 6 (1&2), 99-115.
  15. Munroe, T. (2002). Political behaviour An introduction to politics: Lectures for first-year students. Kingston, Jamaica: Canoe Press.
  16. Najib announces repeal of ISA, three emergency declarations. (2011). The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from
  17. Phang S. N., Raja Noriza Raja Ariffin, Kuppusamy Singaravello, Lee K. L., Noor Azina Ismail & Nurmazilah Dato’ Mahzan. (2003). Kajian Geran Tahunan Berasaskan Kaedah Keseimbangan yang diberi oleh Kerajaan Persekutuan kepada PBT di bawah Akta Pemberian kepada Negeri (Penyelenggaraan Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan) 1981 (Akta 245) dan Kajian Kedudukan Kewangan PBT. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: University Malaya.
  18. Peron, J. (2005, Summer). Liberalism and freedom. Mackinac Center IMPACT. Retrieved from
  19. Pintor, R. L., & Gratschew, M. (2002) Voter Turnout since 1945: A Global Report. Halmstad, Sweden: International IDEA.
  20. Puthucheary, M. & Norani Othman. (2005). Elections and democracy in Malaysia. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
  21. Roskin, M. G., Cord, R. L., Jones, W.S. & Medeiros, J. A.(2010). Political science: An introduction. (11th ed.). New York, NY: Longman.
  22. Shermer, M. (2011). The believing brain: From ghosts and gods to politics and conspiracies

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